Brazilian Carnival Chronology Part III: 1933-today
This article is the third part of the History and Chronology of events about the Brazilian Carnival.
1933 Samba schools parade is now part of the official carnival program elaborated by Distrito federal City Hall and by Touring Club. The competition was sponsored by the newspaper O Globo, and that time it was established the first parades competition by prohibiting wind instruments and being mandatory the ala das baianas (baianas wing).
- March 1st: Hilário Jovino Ferreira dies.
1934 Newspaper A Noite promotes the first Rei Momo called ‘in flesh and blood’ since it was first represented by a cardboard doll.
- Creation of Samba Schools Association.
- Rancho Carnavalesco ‘’Deixa Falar’ no longer exists.
- Mangueira created the children group with bateria (percurssion band), mestre-sala and porta-bandeira (the leading couple of the school, she carries the school flag and he is the guardian of it), and their costumes were made of crepe paper. The director was ‘Seu Antônio’ who played a wooden hexagon tambourine without zils.
1935 The samba schools finally have official acknowledgement and need to legalize their situations in the Delegacia do Costumes e Diversão (Fun and Customs Agency) where they obtained the Business License and they were registered as Grêmios Recreativos (a kind of Association) receiving subvention from the City Hall.
- Creation of Momo-Citizen character and the first elected was the singer/composer Silvio Cladas. It was promoted by Cordão dos Laranjas.
- Copacabana has its first sea bathing with people wearing costumes: in lifeguard watchover 4, promoted by newspaper A Noite.
1936 Eloy Monteiro Dias is elected Rio’s Samba-Citizen.
- Carnival songs are the carnival propeller. The main are: Palpite Infeliz, by Noel Rosa, and Pierrot Apaixonado, by Noel and Heitor dos Prazeres.
- The first official costume contest of Municipal Theater is established.
1937 More than 300 carnival songs are released. The great success was Mamãe eu quero, by Jararaca and Vicente Paiva.
- For the first time speakers are installed on Central Ave. on the lamp-posts and, also, there are stages on Floriano Sq. and Paris Sq.
- Appearance of Micarema, the famous today’s Micareta. In carnival of 1937, the strong rains make impossible carnival in Salvador. The foliões in the city decide to have a parade fifteen days after Easter, thus originating the famous Micareta, which has become one of the biggest events there. Today, it is considered the most famous Feira de Santana’s Micareta lasting for 4 days.
1939 Rio City Hall takes the responsibility for organizing and sponsoring carnival parades.
1940 Vizinha Faladeira last parade on Praça Onze.
- Cordão da Saudade organized by Villa-Lobos goes to streets.
1941 Rancho Carnavalesco Ameno Resedá no longer exists.
- The samba-citizen Antenor Gargalhada, Azul e Branco da Salgueiro’s composer dies on January 17.
1942 A Decree from Mayor Henrique Dodsworth determines construction of Presidente Vargas Ave. and the newspapers announce the last carnival at Praça Onze.
Artists and carnival producers protest and Herivelto Martins and Grande Otelo compose the song A Praça Onze.
- The carnival events are now on Ouvidor St. and Central Ave.
- Orson Welles arrives in Brazil to film the carnival.
1943 From this year to 1945, the parades are called ‘war carnivals’. The events counted on the sponsorship of Liga de Defesa Nacional e a União Geral das Escolas de Samba (National Defense League and Association of Samba Schools).
- The opening of Presidente Vargas Ave makes the scenery of the beginning of the first ranchos carnavalescos, Largo S. Domingos, to disappear.
1947 First official samba schools parades in Niteroi. Sabiá was the champion.
1947 Representatives from the associations founded the Samba Schools Federation.
- Paulo da Portela dies.
1950 Creation of Civil Association of Samba Schools. Its first president was Antônio Vieira de Melo.
1951 Império Serrano participates on Moacyr Fenelon’s film Tudo Azul.
- End of Civil Association of Samba Schools and creation of Confederation of Samba Schools.
1952 Due to the end of Civil Association of Samba Schools, the merger of Samba Schools Federation and Association of Samba Schools origins Association of Samba Schools of Rio de Janeiro.
1956 The High-Life Club, one of the main bohemian residues.
- Emilinha Borba records Salgueiro’s samba-enredo (samba-theme) Brasil – Fonte das Artes, by Djalma Sabiá, Eden Silva (Caxenê) and Nilo Moreira. This was the first samba-enredo to be recorded.
1957 Ala dos Impossíveis (Wing of the Impossible Ones) from Portela introduced the passo marcado (a kind of choreography) that, for ‘hiding’ the wigs (instead of being sisal hair giving a poor effect) created a choreography using ‘swords’ (hand allegory).
- Galeria Cruzeiro (name given to Hotel Avenida) was demolished.
1958 The carnival song, which is in decay, recovers audience by having the songs played in several radio programs. Fanzoca do rádio by Miguel Gustavo, Os Rouxinóis by Lamartine Babo, and the samba Madureira chorou by Carvalhinho and Julio Monteiro are some of them.
- With demolition of the building where today there is the Av. Central building (at 156, Rio Branco Ave.), Galeria Cruzeiro no longer exists, meeting point of artists, bohemians and intellectuals.
- From 1958 to 1962, Coca Cola Company and the newspaper Última Hora sponsored parades in samba schools out of carnival time. The events performed in Praça Sete and at Fluminense Stadium awarded the best percussion band with Antenor Gargalhada Award.
1959 I Baile dos Enxutos, at Recreio Theater.
- For the first time a samba school – Acadêmicos do Salgueiro – parades with no cords (public isolation), a rule from parades regulation.
1960 Fernando Pamplona and his team formed by Dirceu and Marie Louise Nery, Arilindo Rodrigues and Nilton Sá, begin a work at Salgueiro that would make a revolution aesthetics in the samba schools carnivals with the theme ‘Quilombo dos Palmares’.
For the first time, the parade regulation contemplated losing points in case of delay at starting the parade. These were called negative points that were being introduced in order to avoid big delays by the schools. In the current ranking, Salgueiro got 95 positive points, Mangueira 98, and Portela 100. Salgueiro had no negative points, Mangueira and Portela, however, had 15 negative points each one.
It was not possible to have a final score (Salgueiro would be the Champion), since the score counting ended up in scuffle. Some days after that, they got to an agreement and they declared the first five big schools as first place. There is no more richness, sculpture and illumination requirements to be judged.
1962 For the first time Tourism Department builds grandstands on the parades location and keeps in charge of the tickets selling.
- I National Congress of Samba is organized, the Carta ao Samba (Letter to Samba) signed by Edson Carneiro and the State Decree by Federal Deputy Frota Aguiar, which declares December 2nd as Samba National Day, are published.
- On February 14, there is the I Percussion Band Contest of Guanabara State at Maracanãzinho. Judge Commission: Pixinguinha, Donga, Osvaldo Sargentelli, and Lúcio Rangel. First place: Salgueiro and Flor do Lins.
- Created the State Department of Tourism, having Victor Bouças in charge.
1963 Tourism Office becomes Department of Tourism. It was created a public contest for city’s decoration. Act 396 on October 23 created by Carvalho Neto deputy.
1964 Composer Ari Barroso dies.
- Nilton Sá wins the first public contest for city’s decoration with the theme: African patterns.
- Isabel Valença – Salgueiro’s floatee – wins the first place on Municipal Theater parade with the costume “Queen Rita of Vila Rica”.
- Mestre Waldomiro creates Mangueira’s children percussion band.
1965 Creation of Blocos Carnavalescos Federation of State of Rio de Janeiro.
- The city’s trams no longer exist.
- All samba schools had themes regarding to IV Centenary of the City.
The innovations introduced by Department of Tourism are the following:
- Building of steps on places where audience, who did not buy a ticked, used to stay;
- Platforms at the end of the avenue for samba schools participants;
- A raised platform over the parade area for installing TV cameras and radio microphones; and
- Special platform for the photographers.
It was also created a parade for the Champion Schools on the Saturday after carnival.
1966 Creation of Ipanema Band. I Samba Symposium takes place from December 2 to 4 in Santos. Adir Botelho, David Ribeiro, and Fernando Santoro win the contest for decoration of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
- Carnival parades are now official in São Paulo.
1967 II Samba Symposium takes place in Santos. Fernando Pamplona wins the contest for decoration of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
1968 Disc News Recorder, Codil, edits for the first time sambas-enredo LP. The record, which was recorded live, was produced by Norival Reis, Expedito Alves and Nilton Silva being called Festival de Sambas.
- Mangueira creates Alas Reunidas (United Wings) – organized for performing in parties and obtaining financial resources for carnival.
- Adir Botelho, David Ribeiro, and Fernando Santoro, ‘the trine’, win the contest for decoration of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
1969 TV Tupi tries to make a revival of carnival songs by creating two festivals, being no succeeded.
- Adir Botelho, David Ribeiro, and Fernando Santoro, ‘the trine’, win the contest for decoration of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
- Fernando Pamplona, Salgueiro’s carnival producer incorporates a new element to samba school parades – a tripod that substitutes the heavy signboard that were carried by samba players.
- III Samba Symposium takes place in Santos.
1970 Having the unification of the samba entities, the only representative from Rio is from the Samba Schools Association of the City of Rio de Janeiro. The initiative was Amauri Jório’s, its president, who promoted a set of innovations in the entity, such as:
- Creation of Superior Council of Samba Schools, which produced the work singed by Edson Carneiro on parades organization and the first concepts and judge criteria.
- Adir Botelho, David Ribeiro, and Fernando Santoro win the contest for decoration of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
- Recording of the first samba-enredos LP by AESEG.
- Attempt in creating a specific legislation on the rights of TV transmission of the schools parades.
1971 Time chronometry is incorporated to the samba schools parade competition requirements.
1972 The newspaper O Globo institutes Estandarte de Ouro (Flag of Gold) award.
- Creation of Riotur by Act 2.079, of July 14th, signed by Chagas Freitas Governor. On September 11th, through Decree “E” 5.696, the entity is named Riotur S/A Empresa de Turismo do Estado do Rio de Guanabara, nominating Colonel Anibal Uzêda de Oliveira as its first president.
- With the initiative from Samba Schools Association, it is created Rio Samba e Carnaval Magazine, managed by Mauricio Mattos de Araujo.
1973 Last samba schools parade on Presidente Vargas Ave. due to the beginning of Metro construction.
- Carnival producer, Joãozinho Trinta, innovates on placing the floatees on the floats.
1974 José Carlos Vilela Rabelo is named Riotur’s President from August to September 18. On September 19, Edson Costa Matos is named Riotur’s President.
1975 Samba Schools Association has now its own head office at 67 Jacinto St, Méier, which is called Samba Palace.
- On 3/31/75, Victor de Oliveira Pinheiro is named Riotur’s President.
- By merging the State of Rio with Guanabara, Riotur is now named Riotur Empresa de Turismo do Municipio do Rio de Janeiro S/A, under management of Victor Pinheiro as President.
- 45º Congress of ASTA-American Society of Travel Agents, which ending, on November 1st, had the performance of ten samba schools.
- Riotur establishes a new criterion of payment for carnival groups. Samba schools and other groups, which received “allowance” as subvention until then, now have a contract as service provider.
1979 On 3/23, Eugênio Agostinho Neto is named Riotur’s President. On 9/10, Ermelino Matarazzo is named Riotur’s President. On 11/31, Victor de Oliveira Pinheiro is named Riotur’s President.
1980 On 6/19, João Roberto Esteves Kelly is named Riotur’s President. Dies Amaury Jório.
1981 Riotur creates Zé Pereira competition as a motivation for street carnival. Death of Neide (porta-bandeira), Mestre André, and Cartola.
1982 Last Baile dos Enxutos at São José Theater.
1983 End of term for second contract as service providers. Samba schools from Group 1, which received 555 UFERJ, asked for 1000 UFERJ for the contract renewal. It was created a great impasse on these amount differences.
Having the beginning of construction of Sambodrome, there was a communication channel among samba players and the government, and a new contract was signed.
Now the contracts are annual.
- It was approved the Decree by Sérgio Cabral creating the course for Judges Formation, but the Law was interposed by Mayor Marcello Alencar.
- On 10/05, Armand Aoad is named Riotur’s President.
- On October 16, Governor Brizola settled the Sambrodome cornerstone.
1984 On March 2nd (Friday), the Avenida dos Desfiles (Parades Avenue) is inaugurated, being commonly called Sambodrome, and today is called Passarela do Samba (Samba Walkway).
With the construction of the dreamed Passarela and with the creation of Liga Independente das Escolas de Samba (Independent Association of Samba Schools), the groups from I° Group are subdivided, and have their parades on Sunday and on Monday with a specific number of schools each day.
- Winner schools from Iº Group (with parades divided in 2 days), compete now for Super Championship title on the Saturday after Carnival.
- Creation of Coordination of Judges managed by the researcher Hiran Araújo, and the first course for judges formation (preparation) is done.
- The scores for the competition requirements are now from 5 to 10 points.
- In the schools regulation, the requirement for comissão de frente (front commission) wing to come after abre-alas (the first wing) no longer exists.
- Creation of Império do Futuro, first children samba school of carioca carnival.
- On 5/30, Trajano Ricardo Monteiro is named Riotur’s President.
1985 I Seminar on judgment criteria is organized, under guidance of Coordination of Judges.
- Guidance on evaluation commission for children samba schools.
1986 On the contract renewal, samba schools received from Riotur 210 millions of cruzeiros, being included the rights for parades transmission.
- On 2/13, Wagner Teixeira is named Riotur’s President.
1987 Inauguration of Carnival Museum at Apoteose Square. Hiran Araújo, its first manager, creates the Advisory Council of Carnival Museum.
- Now the contracts are based on participation on the incomes between Riotur and the Association.
- Organized the first judgment of Group I samba Schools under responsibility of the Independent Association